Caspian Horse

Caspian horses are one of the oldest known horse breeds.

These horses are known for their intelligence, athleticism, and beauty.

They come in a variety of colors, making them a popular choice for riders and carriage drivers alike.

If you’re thinking about adding a Caspian horse to your herd, here is everything you need to know.

Caspian Horse Breed Info

Here are some of the key things you need to know about the Caspian horse:

Height (size) 11.2 – 12.2 hands high
Colors Caspians are found in all colors except pinto. Gray individuals will gradually lighten from a dark roan to a nearly white color as it ages.
Country of Origin Iran
Common Uses They make great children’s mounts, and having outstanding jumping abilities they excel in eventing. They also perform well as driving horses.

Caspian Horse Facts & Information (Breed Profile)

[The Caspian is an ancient breed that was originally thought to have been extinct for more than a thousand years.

It is likely that this breed is the most direct ancestor of the Oriental breeds, and as a result, of all light horse breeds.

It was previously thought that these horses had been extinct a long time ago; nevertheless, the recent rediscovery of the Caspian horse breed provides compelling evidence that the breed is a direct descendent of this ancient Persian lineage.

The scientific community and The Livestock Conservancy are doing research on Caspian horses in order to provide evidence of the breed’s age, clarify its connection with other equine breeds, and provide an understanding of its position in the history of horses.

There is accumulating evidence, both in the form of physical data and historical evidence, that points to Caspians as possibly being one of the genetic foundations for modern horse breeds.

There is evidence of small, elegant horses in Persian art and artifacts dating back to at least 3,000 B.C.E.

The Gold Oxus Treasure of Darabgird is one of them, along with the trilingual seal of King Darius the Great and the staircase frieze from the Palace of Persepolis.

On the King Darius seal, for instance, the king is seen riding a horse that is so little that his feet are almost touching the ground.

The survival of the Caspian horse is due to the efforts of the Iranian aristocrat Narcy Firouz and his American-born wife, Louise Laylin Firouz.

In 1957, Narcy and Louise moved to Iran and began teaching horsemanship in Tehran.

One of the challenges they encountered was finding small mounts with even temperaments for children.

This made them look into rumors of small horses in the remote villages of the Elburz region above the Caspian Sea.

They went on an expedition to the area in 1965, and sure enough, they found out that the tales were true.

There were horses that stood out due to their unique appearance and their small size.

Louise named the breed the Caspian horse, and the pair, fascinated with these rare horses, founded a breeding facility to ensure their survival.

As the number of Caspians in their herd grew, they were able to spare a few for export, and between 1971 and 1976, they transported 26 horses to Europe.

These horses established the basis for the survival of the breed outside of Iran.

The first Caspians to be imported into the United States from England with the purpose of starting a breeding program came in 1994.

In spite of the setbacks in the form of political situation in Iran, the Firouzes remained there and worked actively on behalf of the Caspian horses as well as other rare breeds such as the Turkmen horse, which may still be seen in the area.

Narcy passed away in the year 1994, leaving Louise to continue working with the horses she loved until she too passed away in the year 2008.

A service commemorating Louise as a Turkmen elder was performed in Iran shortly after her death.

That was the first time in history that a woman has received such an honor.

The Turkmen elders who came to the ceremony rode their Turkmen horses.

The Elburz Mountains in northern Iran are still home to a small population of feral Caspian horses.

In Iran, Louise Firouz is credited for establishing Persicus Farm, which later became a national Caspian stud farm and is now operated by the Iranian government.

The Caspian’s prospects are improving in its own country, where it is seen as a national treasure.

An organization known as the International Caspian Society, or ICS, has been established in order to keep a register for the breed and provide support for it all over the world.

Modern research suggests that the Caspian horse was the ancestor of the Arab horse and, by extension, of all modern hot-blooded horses.

If you’re interested in learning more about this fascinating breed, keep reading!

Alternative Names



Intelligent, alert, gentle, with stallions often turned out together and handled by children

Physical Characteristics

The Caspian has a very distinctive appearance, and it is considered a horse.

While quite small in size, research has established that their bone structure is that of a horse rather than a pony.

Their head is short and fine with big eyes, and a dished profile.

The muzzle is small, and the nostrils are big and placed low. The ears are very short.

The neck is graceful, and withers are pronounced. The back is straight, and the tail is set high on the high croup.

The coat is dense. The body is slim, and so are legs which have dense bones and no feathering.

The hooves are very strong. They possess natural floating agile action in all gaits.

The trot is long, low and swinging with incredible use of the shoulder. The canter is rocking and smooth, and gallop is flat and rapid.

The majority of a young Caspian’s adult height is reached before the end of its first 18 months of life, making the growth rate extremely rapid.

They fill out with maturity.


Caspians are found in all colors except pinto.

Gray individuals will gradually lighten from a dark roan to a nearly white color as it ages.

Height (size)

11.2 – 12.2 hands high







Blood Type


Common Uses

They make great children’s mounts, and having outstanding jumping abilities they excel in eventing.

They also perform well as driving horses.



Popular Traits

Exceptional jumping ability



Country of Origin



Oriental breeds of Persian lineage