This little-known equine is found mainly in Russia and is renowned for its hardiness.

If you’re thinking of adding a Kalmyk to your herd, here’s everything you need to know about them!

Kalmyk Horse Breed Info

Here are some of the key things you need to know about the Kalmyk horse:

Height (size) 14.2 – 15.0 hands high
Colors Bay and chestnut
Country of Origin Russia
Common Uses Riding and driving

Kalmyk Horse Facts & Information (Breed Profile)

The Kalmyk (or Kalmykia) is a unique breed of horse that originated in Dzungaria and was introduced to Russia by the Kalmyk people in the 17th century.

The Kalmyk Horse originates from Mongolian bloodlines and is raised along the Volga and Ural rivers.

In appearance, they are quite similar to the Kirghiz breed; however, they are taller and often have rougher confirmation.

In the 17th century, Kalmyk people of Mongolian descent traveled from Dzungaria to Russia, bringing with them livestock and also horses.

There may have been as many as a million horses in the Kalmyk herd at that period.

These horses were not prized for their beauty, but their toughness and endurance were highly regarded.

As farming grew increasingly automated, less and less of these horses were needed, and by 1943, breeding came to a stop.

Later in 1986, researchers from the Kalmyk University of Cattle Breeding set out to find and count examples of the remaining Kalmyk horse (although purebred animals were considered almost entirely gone).

In order to conserve the breed, it was crucial to identify the healthiest individuals and develop a breeding program.

The finest specimens were discovered in the east, where the animals were more geographically separated, and breeding farms were set up.

The Kalmyk horse and the Kirgiz horse were the foundation bloodstock for the Siberian horse, which was created by crossing the two breeds.

If you’re interested in learning more about this fascinating breed, keep reading!

Alternative Names

“Kalmykia horse”, “Kalmyskaya”



Physical Characteristics

The head has a Roman profile, and is attached to a small neck.

The back is short, and the skin is firm and thick.

Their stride is fast, and the confirmation is sound.

They have great stamina and endurance, and incredible tolerance for severe weather conditions.

They have been known to survive extreme scarcity of food and exhausting journeys.


Bay and chestnut

Height (size)

14.2 – 15.0 hands high







Blood Type


Common Uses

Riding and driving


Very resistant to diseases

Popular Traits

Some are gaited and can pace



Country of Origin



Mongolian horse, Bashkort, Kazakh horse, Kabardin, Don